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HR Transformation


Nowadays, HR professionals become strategic partners of the organizations and they  have  significant roles such as efective recruitment, fair salary sharing, education of employees and organizational development. So HR professionals should support organization to overcome the changes on economical, global, technological, demographic challenges. The transformation starts with HR.

HR professionals should not only deal with his/her job, they also deal with outside and they should have same objects with the organization such as customers, investors.

Traps Should Be Avoided (Viruses)

–          HR transformation should fit the organization culture and roots.

–          HR transformation aim should be the enrich the organization, not only the HR.

–          Talent management, performans management, promotion process is only small part of transformation. The whole transformation should integrate all the processes.

–          HR transformation should not be performed only a single manager.

–          HR transformation finishes when HR helps the organization to perform its strategy.

–          Productivity improvements are key factors for the transformation.

A Real HR Transformation Definition is an approach that redefining the how innovative, compatible and work focused HR activities are prosecuted that help business to keep their promise to the customers, investors and other stakeholders. This process should be defined clearly.

There are four main steps to make HR transformation :

1.Step : Why should be done HR transformation?

If the reasons of HR transformation are completely understood, it would be easier to achive it. To make a sustainable transformation, it should be directly fit the organization strategy and the environmental factors. To overcome this, you should start to work from work environment and stakeholder’s expectations. It is important to determine whether the organization is ready to transform.

In the globalizing world, to make a efficient transformation, HR professionals should also deal with demographic trends, gender differences, generation, workforce diversification, political enviroment, market conditions, general work conditions, organization strategy etc.

The stakeholders of a company are employees, managers, customers, investors, rivals, global suppliers, regulators, and public. Thus HR proffessionals should care about all these.

Customers become more knowledgeable and need more day by day. Customers are more selective than before so the mission of HR proffesionals is understanding customers and developing relationship with them. To improve relationship, they might visit customers periodically.

Investors also give importance to intengible values. They pay attention more  leadership and quality of organization rather than balance sheet. So the duty of HR proffessionals is to give confidence about the future of the organization to investors by applying good HR practices.

HR proffessionals should understand both current and future rivals. They should also determine the strenghts and weaknesses of the rivals in the market.

The suppliers of the company can be a source of advantage or disadvantage so HR should  make balanced and cost-effective contracts with critical suppliers.

Regulations might affect the ability to compete of the company so HR managers should learn regulations earlier and should be  the active appliers of the regulations.
2.Step : What is the results and benefits of transformation?

The HR facilities should be measued such as “How many people are recruited”,”How much hour education has given” but not enough. First of all, the expectations of the stakeholders should be satisfied. For example, it can be monitored the efficiency of the employees after the transformation.

Capability represents what the company is  famous for. It is also non-financial value. For example, Apple is famous for its user-frienly products or Google is famous for the ability to forming the market etc. The capabilities also represents the results of HR facilities and company strategy. Talent, speed, collabrative thinking, responsibiliy, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer relationship, innovation, cooperation strategy, simplicity, social responsibility, risk, efficiency are the main capabilities in a company.

The company should determine the key capabilities to its future success. According to the priorities, it should be prepare the objective cards. The HR transformation results can be defined and monitored by focusing the results of the capabilities.

3.Step : How to transform? / Redesigning HR

This stage is the origin of HR transformation. There are 3 question that should be answered.
Who are you? (vision) : It represents the identity and image of the company that HR strategy offer. It focuses the future,creates the expectations, determine the direction and guide the evoluation of HR function.
What you provide? (mission or value proposition) : It consist of the non-financial capabilities to succeed. For instance, HR department should provide the efficiency.
Why do you do this? (results wanted to be obtained) : It may consist of the revenue growth, customer loyalty, total market profit. This allows to monitor the HR progress and the influence on work.

In the HR transformation the operational tasks and transformational tasks should be seperated.There are 5 main channels that share the responsibilities.
– Service Center : Techology innovations allow the centerilizations of different organizations such as IT to provide efficiency and reduce costs. Service centers should be available 7/24.
– Enterprise HR (HR Management) : The roles of enterprise HR is ; to provide consistent culture and image that includes whole business, to implement CEO’s agenda, make sure the HR workers are in the same line with the company objectives, solve conflicts between HR specialists and settled HR, to maintain the improvement of HR proffessionals.

– Settled HR (Strategic Partnership) : Clarify the strategy, perform the organizational audits, to manage skills and organization, to enrich the capabilities, leadership are the main roles of settled HR.
– Specialists Center : Provides consultancy services in the organization.
– Operational Implementation : Individual case studies, perform the operational tasks such as recruitment, analysing and reporting are the main duties of this channel.

After clarifying the HR department’s strategy and structure, then it must be focused to improve HR studies. There are two dimentions of HR facilities.
Content: What are HR facilities? (People, Performance, Communication, Business)
Process: How do we improve HR studies or how do we restructure them. (Alignment, Integration, Innovation)

4.Step : Who does it? /  Allocating Responsibilities
To achive the HR transformation, it should be allocated right people in right time and in right way. Participation is one of the most important factor to succeed. People are owing if they participate to the process. HR leaders and proffecionals, managers, outside customers and consultants should be participated to the HR transformation.Each group has different responsibilies for the transformation. For example HR leaders and professionals design the process, managers ensure to fit between transformation and company objectives, customers guide activities which are related to them, consultants make suggestions and warn about errors.

Milestones Of Each Step

1.Step Milestones: Business Context
– Accept HR transformation’s benefit
– Create a transformation team
– Identify new business reasons that requires the transformation of HR, evaluate and give priority
– Define and share main business reason to make HR transformation.
2.Step Milestones : Results
– Make organizational capability check to identify at least 2 best skills that business strategy requires.
– Make operational the key capabilities and determine the there the HR transformation results.
– Show all stakeholders how to benefit the capabilities that are obtained.
3.Step Milestones : Redesigning HR
– Define mission, vision expressions.
– Define clearly the HR organization.
– Give priorities to the HR facilities and integrate.
– Determine roles and responsibilities.
– Invest talented HR professionals who are capable to perform transformation.
4.Step Milestones : HR Responsiblities
– Choose right people to the trasformation team.



HR professioanls should not only focus entirely in the function of HR but also focus on all stakeholders such as customers, investors. HR professionals are also business partners of business to achive the  company goals.



1. [HR Transformation, Dave Ulrich, Justin Allen, Wayne Brockbank, Jon Younger, Mark Nyman, Humanist]

Mayıs 22, 2013 Posted by | MBA | , , , , | Yorum bırakın

Country Of Origin Effect – Japanese Brands


The brand image has a significant role that consumer’s buying behavious. There are so many factors that affects the consumers. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the country of origin effect, historical background of Japanese culture and the make a detailed analysis of Japanese electronic brands and impressions from origin. Thus historical background of this country, their industry, the features that influence the understanding of country of origin effect deeply.  The informations were collected from literature, media search and academic resources.

 County of Origin Effect (COE)

County of origin effect is one of the most significant factors that affects the brand image. If a brand is origined from a spesific country, it may lead consumer to have positive or negative perception on it. The counrty of the brand or product may affect the buying behaviour of the consumer because counsumers may make generalizations about the products. For instance, Japanese products are famous for quality and especially they are good at electronics so if consumer wants to buy a television, he/she may prefer japanese television brand.
According to another definition; “ The country of origin effect (COE) is a psychological effect which occurs when customers are unfamiliar with a product (e.g., product quality) and the image of the product’s country of origin has a “halo effect” on the customers’ evaluation of the product.” [1]

A positive county image may allow marketers to introduce new products because they can gain quickly acceptance and recognition. This is called positive country of origin effect. So the company gain competetive advantage by selling these new products. Sometimes the opposite situation may occur; a negative country image may damage the companies image this is called negative country of origin effect. [2]

Figure 1.1 – (a) Country-of-origin (halo) effect (Han, 1989) and (b) Model for current study.

The counrty origin effect is not stable, sometimes it may change during the time. For example in the last few decades Korean cars were very low quality but now they can break this negative image.
The demographics also affect the consumer buying behaviour. According to researches, elderly, less educated, and politically conservative people are more influenced by country of origin effect.
Country of origin effect also is dependent to the cathegory of the product. For example it is more intensive when choose new car but it is less intensive when buy new clothes.


History of Japanese Social and Economic Structure

Japan comes in a combination of four large, three thousand five hundred medium-sized and small islands in the Pasific Ocean. Although the majority of the population in cities, agriculture is an important part of the Japanese economy. Japan is the world’s third industrial country. Generally, it occurs heavy industry. Major industrial plants are automobile, electronic and optical equipment, locomotives, aircraft, chemical and machine manufacturing factories of all kinds. 26% of the labor force working in the industrial sector. Most of the products are exported to other countries.

Figure 1.2 – The geographic map of Japan

When Renaissance Europeans reached the Japan in the 16th century, they were quite admiring of Japan. Japan was rich in precious metal. As a result of this, Japan was to become a major exporter of copper and silver during the period. Japan was also perceived as a sophisticated feudal society with a high culture and advanced pre-industrial technology. They expertised their skills. They were more populated and more urbanized than European countries. European visitors were amazed by the quality of Japanese craftsmanship and metalsmithing.[3]

The Japanese economy was one of the earliest in Asia to industrialise. During the Meiji restoration period in the mid 19th century, the Japanese government actively pursued Western-style reforms and development – hiring more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics and technology to Japan. [4]

World War II left Japan battered. They lost most of their values. Most of the country’s infrastructure and production capacity was declined during the war, and its capital city, Tokyo, lay in ruins. Most of the industrialized world viewed Japan as a defeated enemy, and the attitude of its Asian neighbors was even less favorable. Faced with such a bleak outlook, the people and the new, democratic government of Japan had little choice but to get to work. [5]

Japan recovered himself very quickly. In 1951 they reached their economic position in 1935. 16 year is not so long time such a big revolution. To achieve this they made so many reforms in every area to change economic and social structure. For example, they gave some rights to employees and women. In 1947, a liberal constitution was declared. In 1951, they re-gained the right to establish foreign relations by San Francisco Peace Treaty. After this date, the country has reached to internationally competitive. In 1964, Tokyo Olympics provive to regain the country’s international reputation and it was an important turning point.

As we mentioned Japan has made so much reforms between 1945 and 1951. The main purpose of these reforms were to stimulate the economy by making an efficient production system. During this period, they gave priority to the steel industry to provide raw metarial to the engine industries. They made so many investments to metallurgical and chemical industry, thus they gain a rapid development acceleration of electronic and consumer goods. [6]

Another key factor behind rapid development of country is the existence of a good level of educated workforce.[7]

There are generally two approach that affects Japanese management style. First, after World War II, American thought system implementation of advocating universal / organizational approach. Second, the success of Japanese industry, local culture due to perform specific methods of organization and management join advocate / cultural process approach. Japan had gained knowledge from Western counrties and implement it by combaining its own local culture. Thus, cultural relativism problems caused by Japan had overcomed beyond the time of development.[8]

In general, Japanese management practices were influenced by religious and cultural factors, the decision delivery systems, production systems, continuous improvement (Kaizen) approach and the form of specific human resource management practices. Another interesting point of Japanese management is that the senior managers don’t give strategic decisions. The decisions are taken by everyone in the group. This management system is contrary of Western and American management system. In Japanese businesses, everyone has a chance to give decision. Everyone that will be affected by this decision, also read and sign. This is called “Ring System”. [9]

The main purpose of the ring system is to achive more cooperative employees. This ring system makes the process more quality but it also make the process slower.

Nowadays, it is not possible to deny the importance and effect of Japan in business management. Especially several essays focus on production system and technique of this country.  It is important to analyze understanding of management of Japan industry because of being the  second in economy all around the world. It is underlined that the characteristics of Japan society affect their success in this field. Companies, suppliers and relation between workers are basic steps of this situation.

Japanese engineering is famous for their high quality products. To achive this approach they use some special tecniques, principles and ideas. Japanese engineers are creating innovative management approaches, tools, tecniques and technologies. Engineering is the design and implementation of solutions to solve problems. Good engineers use scientific principles and ideas that they apply. There are also plenty of good engineers in Japan. [10] Figure 1.3 – Private consuption growth, public investment growth and real GDP growth of the Japan between March 2007 and March 2012. [11]

Japanese Electronic Sector
            Today, electronic changes the nature of the world. It also attact most of other sectors so it is very important industry. Information society needs speed and only electronic devices can response this change. Despite the recent economic crisis, the electronic manufacturing service sector is still performing strongly and it is still estimating to grow. From mobile phones to the internet, from telecommunications to satellite TV, every single unit is advansing rapidly as the other sectors.[12]

The Japanese electronics industry has a high concentration of leading companies and a reputation for high quality products. Japanese companies have been responsible for a number of important innovations, including having pioneered the transistor radio and the Walkman (Sony), the first mass-produced laptops (Toshiba), the VHS recorder (JVC), and solar cells and LCD screens (Sharp) [13]

Japanese companies are good at electronics and they are the world leaders in the production of compact disc players, video cameras, laptop computers, fax machines, photocopiers, cell phones and various key computer components. Japan is providing a wide variety of new products and Technologies such as television, mobile phones, personal computers etc. [14]
Japanese Global Electronic Brands

In this part, it is given brief historical information about important Japanese global electronic brands. [15]

Allied Telesis is a network infrastructure/telecommunications company. It is founded in 1987. The company is a global driver of secure Ethernet and IP Access solutions and an industry leader in the deployment of IP triple play networks over copper and fiber access infrastructure.

Official Web Site : http://www.alliedtelesis.com

Alpline Electronics Inc. is a Japanese electronic company that is specialized car audio and navigation systems. It is a manufacturer of Alps Electric. It is headquartered in Iwaki, Fukushima.

Official Web Site : http://www.alpline.com

  Brother Industries Ltd is a multinational electrical equipment company. It is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan Its products are printers, multifunction printers, sewing machines, large machine tools, label printers, typewriters, fax machines, and other computer-related electronics.

Official Web Site : http://www.brother-usa.com

  Melco Holdings Inc.  is a family business founded by Makoto Maki in 1975 and is located in Japan. Its most known brand is Buffalo. Buffalo Inc. is currently one of the 14 subsidiaries of Melco Holdings Inc., It also has audio equipment manufacturer, the company entered the computer peripheral market in 1981 with an EEPROM writer.

Official Web Site : http://www.melcoinc.com

Canon is a specialized in the manufacture of imaging and optical products such as cameras, camcorders, photocopiers, steppers, computer printers and medical equipment. It is headquartered ted in Ota, Tokyo, Japan.

Official Web Site : http://www.canon.com

Casio Computer Co., is a multinational electronics manufacturing company  headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Its products are calculators, mobile phones, cameras, musical instruments and watches. It was founded in 1946.

Official Web Site : http://www.casio.com

Clarion Co. is manufacturer of car audio, automotive navigation systems, AutoPCs, visual equipment, bus equipment, and communication equipment. It is majority owned by Hitachi. Clarion has an OEM relationship with many automotive companies, providing car headunits and components to them for their production vehicles.

Official Web Site : http://www.clarion.com

Eizo Corporation, is a manufacturer of high-end computer displays. A Japanese corporation, it was founded in March 1968 but did not adopt  its current name until 1999, when Nanao Corporation and Eizo merged. It has its headquarters in Hakusan, Ishikawa Prefecture. “Eizo” means “image” in Japanese.

Official Web Site : http://www.eizo.com

Seiko Epson Corporation, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the world’s largest manufacturers of computer printers, information and imaging related equipment.Headquartered in Suwa, Nagano, Japan. The company manufactures inkjet, dot matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, large home theatre televisions, robots and industrial  automation equipment, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic components.

Official Web Site : http://www.epson.com

Fuji Electric Holdings Co. operating under the brand name FE,  is a Japanese holding company that retains manufacturing companies of pressure transmitters, flowmeters, gas analyzers, controllers, inverters, pumps, generators, ICs, motors, and power equipment.

Official Web Site : http://www.epson.com

Fuji Xerox Co. is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co.  (75%) and the American document management company Xerox (25%) to develop, produce and sell xerographic and document-related products and services in the Asia-Pacific region. Its headquarters is in Midtown West in Tokyo Midtown, Akasaka, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.  Fuji Xerox is the world’s longest running joint venture between a Japanese and an American company.

Official Web Site : http://www.fujixerox.com

Fujitsu Limited is a multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is the world’s third-largest IT services provider measured by revenues after IBM and Hewlett-Packard.

Official Web Site : www.fujitsu.com

Hitachi, is multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.  It is the parent of the Hitachi Group and forms part of the DKB Group of companies.  Hitachi is business segments are : Information and Telecommunication Systems, Electrical Systems, Social and Industrial Systems, Automotive Systems, Electronic Component Devices, Construction, and Financial services.

Official Web Site : http://www.hitachi.com

  Victor Company of Japan, usually referred to as JVC, is  international consumer and professional electronics corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan’s first televisions, and for developing the Video Home System (VHS) video recorder.

Official Web Site : http://www.jvc.com

  Kenwood Corporation is a manufacturer of amateur radio as well as Hi-Fidelity and portable audio equipment.

Official Web Site : http://www.kenwood.com

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is a multinational electronics and electrical equipments manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It manufactures electric and architectural equipment and the company is a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels.  The Corporation was established in 1921.

Official Web Site : http://www.mitsubishielectric.com

NEC Corporation is a multinational provider of information technology services and products, with its headquarters in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. NEC provides information technology (IT) and network solutions to business  enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies.  The company was known as the Nippon Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC.

Its NEC Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging it with Renesas Electronics. NEC is a member of the Sumitomo Group.

Official Web Site : http://www.nec.com

Nikon Corporation is a multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, mastered in optics and imaging products. Its products are cameras, camera lenses, binoculars, microscopes, ophthalmic lenses, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication.

Official Web Site : http://www.nikon.com

Nintendo Co.is a multinational consumer electronics company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. Nintendo is the world’s largest video game company by revenue.  Founded in 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi. It originally produced handmade hanafuda cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels.

Official Web Site : http://www.nintendo.com

Panasonic Corporation, is a multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan. The company was founded in 1918, and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers.

Official Web Site : http://www.panasonic.com

Pioneer Corporation is a multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. The company was founded by Nozomu Matsumoto in 1938 in Tokyo as a radio and speaker repair shop, and its current president is Susumu Kotani. Pioneer played a role in the development of interactive cable TV, the Laser Disc player, the first automotive Compact Disc player, the first detachable face car stereo, Supertuner technology, DVD and DVD recording, plasma display (branded as Kuro), and Organic LED display (OLED).

Official Web Site : http://www.pioneer.com

Sharp Corporation is a multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products. Headquartered in Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan. It was founded in 1912 and takes its name from one of its founder’s first inventions, the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil, which was invented by Tokuji Hayakawa in 1915. It  is the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world.

Official Web Site : http://sharp-world.com

Sony Coorporation is one of the biggest multinational company of Japan. It is headquarted in  Konan Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is focused on electronics and diversificate  game, entertainment and financial services sectors.  Sony is ranked 87th on the 2012 list of Fortune Global 500.

Official Web Site : http://www.sony.com

Toshiba Corporation is a multinational engineering and electronics corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.  Its products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems,  electronic components and materials, power systems, industrial and social infrastructure systems, household appliances,  medical equipment, office equipment, lighting and logistics.

Official Web Site : http://www.toshiba.com



Nowadays, branding becomes a key subject in marketing both in academic and business world. Branding has not only applied to goods and services, it has also used in person, an opinion and place such as country, region, city marketing. Thus, it can be talked about brand personality of countries similar to product brand personality. [16]

Today, it is a well known fact that, branding is closely related with origin. Brands also have a personality like human beings. Consumer decision making behaviour is very complex and so many things affects their behaviour. There are lots of cues to make final purchase decision. The brand and the brand meaning, evokes preferences play an important role for the consumer. So, today the brand with the coming of becoming one of the most important issues in the application of marketing area is also not limited to only the goods and services, it also contains individuals, ideas, cases and places(like country, region, city). Brand image, brand personality, brand associations, communication messages influence the perception of customers about the quality of a brand.

Figure  1.4 : Information Cues, Graphic Depiction (adapted from Keller,1993)

There are many factors that influence country image such as economy, technology, wealth index, regulatory mechanisms, government and business history. [17]

Economy :
One of the main factors that influence customers’ perceptions on a country is the level of the country’s economy. Most of the countries with a positive COO mentioned above are highly industrialized, developed countries.
Technology :
It is an expected result, if the brand country has higher technology, it is absolutely gives positive perception to the consumers. For example, Japan has known their high-tech so expecially japanese brands have known good in technological products.
Wealth index:
This refers to the perceived overall wealth of a country measured. It affects the perception of brands if there are so many billionaries, millionaries, luxury goods industry, leisure industries, individuals income etc. It  offers customers a cue to infer the level of product quality, variety, and perceived credibility of the products/brands.
Regulatory mechanisms :
Regulatory mechanisms such as Intellectual Property Rights law (IPR), online piracy laws, anti-fraud regulations and others create a sense of perceived security in the minds of businesses and customers about a specific country.
Government :
The government management type such as capitalism, democracy, monarchy also affects the counrty image positive or negative.
Business history :
Country’s past successes or failures of a businesses also affect the country image. If there are lots of success stories as Japan, it is easy to attact consumers.

Brands also make advertisements to make positive feelings to their brands. For instance, the belief that purchasing foreign products hurts the local economy by causing loss of jobs, and that it is morally wrong and unpatriotic. So foreign products have to spend more effort than local brands.


But in some market segments foreign products have a substantial advantage because they are foreign.

On the other hand, some companies that have positive country image, they efficiently use the benefits of their country image. To highlight this point lets say, Japan has known quality of their product so the new brand can use this positive image in their marketing facilities.
Figure  1.5 : This graph shows the cultural diffences of brands.

If we summarize all the things as we mentioned above, in the challenging marketing conditions brands should have a personality to affect consumers positively. County of origin is one of the most important facts for consumer’s perception. Marketer should not be missed the importance of country of origin effect.


1. [Han, C.M. (1989): Country image: halo or summary construct, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 22-229.]

2. [Hulland, J./Todino, H.S./Lecraw, D.J. (1996): Country-of-Origin Effects on Sellers’ Price Premiums in Competitive Philippine Markets, in: Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 57-79.]


3. [http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japonya%27n%C4%B1n_ekonomik_tarihi]

4. [http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/japan/industry-sector-industries.html]

5. [http://www.japaninc.net/history-of-the-modern-japanese-economy/]

6. [Japon Yönetim Anlayışı ve şirket ağları (KEİRETSU) analizi, Muammer ZERENLER – Rıfat İRAZ, p759-776]

7. [Yıldız, Gültekin ve Ardıç, Kadir. (2002), “Japon  İşletmecilik Uygulamaları Türk  İşletme Yönetimine Bir Model Olabilir Mi?”,  Mimar ve Mühendis Dergisi, Year 6, June-July-August Number 31.p.41]

8. [Sargut, A.S. (2001),  Kültürler Arası Farklılaşma ve Yönetim.  İmge Kitabevi, Ankara.p.221]

9. [Tekin, Mahmut. (2003), Üretim Yönetimi, Cilt 2, Konya:Günay Matbaası. Vergiliel Tüz, Melek. (2001),  Japon ve Amerikan Yönetim Modeli (Türkiye Uygulaması), İstanbul:Alfa Publication. p.22]

10. [Engineered In Japan : Japanese Technology – Management Practices, JEFFREY K AUTOR LIKER,JOHN E AUTOR ETTLIE,JOHN C AUTOR CAMPBELL, p3]

11. [http://bilbo.economicoutlook.net/blog/?p=19528]

12. [http://www.qfinance.com/sector-profiles/electronics]

13. [The mighty, fallen – Ex-world-beaters swallow their pride and do deals with foreign rivals” . The Economist. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.]

14. [http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=922&catid=24&subcatid=157]

15. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_electronics_brands and official web sites of brands]

16. [İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi İşletme Bölümü, Ülkelerin marka kişiliği üzerine bir araştırma, Sema Dündar Kurtulmuş,p:286]

17. [Martin Roll(2008), Branding: The Country Of Origin Effect, http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2008/03/branding-the-co.html#.UXw1ZqK8Cbw]

Mayıs 8, 2013 Posted by | MBA | , , , | 4 Yorum



Günümüz pazarlama evreninde entegre pazarlama iletişimini doğru anlamak, entegrasyonun ne anlama geldiğini kavrayabilmek ve müşteriyi doğru noktalardan yakalayıp uzun süreli sadakate dayalı ilişkiler kurabilmek için neler yapılması gerektiğini bu makalede irdeliyor olacağız. Bu kavramlara girmeden önce pazarlamanın ve pazarlama iletişiminin ne olduğu konularına kısa bir giriş yapacağız.

Pazarlama Kavramı

Pazarlama müşteriyle ilgilenir ve karlı müşteri ilişkileri kurmaya yardımcı olur. Pazarlamanın birincil amacı, müşterilere üstün değer sözü vererek mevcut müşterileri elinde tutup, yeni müşteriler elde ederek müşteri portföyünü genişletmektir. [1]

Pazarlama, kişilerin ve firmaların amaçlarına uygun şekilde değişimi sağlamak üzere, ürünlerin, hizmetlerin ve düşüncelerin yaratılmasını, fiyatlandırılmasını, dağıtımını ve tutundurma çabalarını planlama sürecidir. Bir başka tanıma göre pazarlama, işletmenin amaçlarını gerçekleştirmek, mevcut ve potansiyel müşterilerin istek ve arzularını tatmin etmek için mal ve hizmetleri üreticilerden tüketiciye doğru yönlendiren faaliyetlerin tümüne denilmektedir.

Artan rekabet koşullarında işletmeler, rekabet üstünlüğü sağlamak veya var olan rekabet üstünlüklerini koruyabilmek için yavaş yavaş popülaritesini yitiren klasik pazarlama teknikleri yerine, çağdaş pazarlama yöntemlerini iyi algılayıp, işletmelerinin pazarlama stratejilerine uygun hale getirip etkin bir şekilde kullanmak durumundalar. Pazarlama stratejisi olarak fiyat veya ürün bazlı yaklaşımlar yerine müşterinin ihtiyaç ve beklentilerini tatmin edecek ürünleri, yani müşteri odaklı stratejileri kullanmak işletme açısından çok daha faydalı olacaktır.
Müşteri odaklı pazarlamada öncelikle hangi ürün veya hizmetin satılacağına ve bu ürün/hizmet’in nerede üretileceği sorularına cevap aranmalıdır. Diğer önemli noktalar ise fiyat, miktar ve satış noktalarıdır. Pazarlama aktiviteleri sırasında bu soruları doğru bir şekilde cevaplayabilmek, pazarlama faaliyetinin başarısında etkin rol oynayacaktır.

Pazarlama İletişimi

Günümüzde teknolojinin hızla artmasıyla birlikte, çok farklı iletişim kanalları ortaya çıkmış ve hedef kitleye doğru kanaldan ulaşmak önemli bir hal almıştır. Bu sürecin doğal bir sonucu olarak firmaların iletişim konusundaki ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda “pazarlama iletişimi” kavramı ortaya çıkmıştır.

Pazarlama iletişimi: “Bir kuruluşun var oluşuyla ürün ve hizmetleriyle ilişkide bulunduğu ve bulunacağı kesimlere neler vadettiği, neler sağlayabileceğini anlatmasını sağlayacak iletişim çabalarının tümüdür”

Bir başka tanıma göre ise pazarlama iletişimi: “Hedef tüketicilerin tutum ve davranışlarını istenen yönde güçlendirmeyi, tersi yönde ise bunu değiştirmeye ya da amaçlanan yeni tutum ve davranışı oluşturmayı hedefleyen ikna edici iletişimi sürecidir”

Yapılan tanımlara bakılarak; pazarlama iletişiminin, pazarlama eylemleriyle beraber; aynı zamanda işletme çevresi, sosyal sorumluluğu ve imajıyla ilgili olan çabalarla doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak satışların arttırılması, giderek ürünün ve işletme ömrünün uzatılması amaçladığı söylenebilir.

Pazarlama iletişimi, spesifik olarak tutundurma işlevlerini desteklediği halde kapsam olarak tüm pazarlama bileşen ve eylemlerini kapsayan özelde iki genelde çok yönlü ve amaçlı bilgi verme, ikna etme ve hatırlatma eylemlerini kapsamaktadır.

Pazarlama İletişimi Karması

Pazarlama iletişim denilince; eskiden sadece pazarlama karması elemanlarından tutundurma çalışmaları (reklam, halkla ilişkiler, promosyon, kişisel satış) akla gelmekteydi. Günümüzde ise pazarlama iletişimini tutundurma çalışmaları ile beraber, ürünün özellikleri ve ambalajıyla başlayan, satış ve satış sonrası hizmetlere kadar uzanan geniş bir kavram haline gelmiştir.

Bu bakımdan pazarlama iletişimi elemanları denince, pazarlama karması elemanları (ürün, fiyat, dağıtım ve tutundurma) da kastedilmektedir. Yine de pazarlama iletişimi kavramı içersinde yer alan ana kavramları belirtmekte yarar var.

    • Reklam
    • Halkla ilişkiler
    • Satış geliştirme
    • Satış personeli ve kişisel satış
    • Ürünün ambalajı, stili, rengi
    • Marka
    • Satış noktalarının yeri ve niteliği
    • Müşteri hizmetleri
    • Satış sonrası hizmetler
    • Doğrudan pazarlama
    • Pazarlama araştırmaları
    • Yeni ürün geliştirme

Entegre Pazarlama İletişimi

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi yirminci yüzyılın sonlarına doğru ortaya çıkmış ve önemi her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bilgi teknolojilerinin etkisi ile pazarlama ve pazarlama iletişiminin çalışma alanı değişmiş ve entegre pazarlama iletişimini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Kitle iletişim araçlarının artması, müşterileri marketlerinin daha küçük segmentlere ayrılması ve internetin daha yaygın kullanılmaya başlanması gibi inovasyonlar entegre pazarlama iletişimini etkilemiştir. Bu gelişmeler pazarlamacıları rekabetin yoğun olduğu alandan çıkıp, daha spesifik olarak müşterilerin istek ve ihtiyaçlarını karşılayabilecekleri ve uzun süre sadakate dayalı ilişki kurabilecekleri niş alanlara sevk etmiştir.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, farklı iletişim kanallarından gönderilen mesajların daha koordineli ve tutarlı oluşturulmasına yardımcı olmaktadır. Ayrıca bu kavram paydaş gruplarına çok büyük önem göstermekte, müşteri sadakatine dayalı stratejik ilişki inşa etmeye çalışmaktadır. Günümüzde entegre pazarlama iletişimi ile ilgili akademik araştırma azdır.  Bu az sayıda araştırmanın büyük çoğunluğu genellikle Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki Halkla İlişkiler firmalarının yaptığı araştırmalardır.[2]

Entegre pazarlama iletişiminin gelişim sürecini doğru anlayabilmek için entegrasyon kavramının doğru anlaşılması çok önemlidir. Entegrasyon iletişim araçlarının pazarlama stratejilerine uygun olarak birleştirilmesi olarak tanımlanabilir.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, pazarlama iletişiminin farklı bir yaklaşımla tasarlanması ve iletişimin tüm biçimlerinin birlikte planlanmasıdır. Pazarlamacıyı ölçülebilir pazarlamaya yöneltir ve teknolojiyi sonuna kadar kullanmaya teşvik eder. [3]


Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, iletişim sürekliliği ve satış etkisi üretir. Firmanın bir çok kampanya faaliyetleri şekillendirip şirket imajında birleştirmek için sorumluluğu birisinin ellerine verilir. Şirketin ve ürünlerin, tüketicinin problemlerini çözmekte nasıl yardımcı olacağını göstermeyi amaçlayan bir toplam pazarlama iletişimi stratejisine yol açar. [4]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, satın alma davranışına direk etki etmek için müşteriye odaklanır. Bu yoğunlaşma sonucunda, reklamda farkındalık seviyesini artırarak, müşteride olumlu etki bırakmaya çalışır. Müşterilerin satın alma davranışlarınız izleyerek, bir sonraki satın alma davranışını tahminlemeye çalışır.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, çağdaş pazarlamanın yeni bir oluşumudur ve pazarlama hedeflerinin gerçekleştirilmesi için iletişim faaliyetlerini entegre edilmesidir. [5]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi programı temelde Şekil 1.1 deki iletişim modeline dayanır.

Şekil 1.1

Bundaki “Sender” firmayı, “Receiver” ise tüketiciyi temsil etmektedir. Şekilde firma mesajı farklı araçlar yardımı ile tüketiciye ulaştırmaya çalışmaktadır ve gelen mesajın tüketici tarafından doğru anlaşıldığından emin olmak için bir geri bildirim söz konusudur. Doğru pazarlama iletişimi tüketicinin mesajı doğru şekilde algılamasıyla gerçekleşir. [6]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimini kısa vadeli geçici başarılar peşinde koşan, başlangıç ve bitişi olan bir süreç olarak görmek doğru olmaz. Entegre pazarlama iletişimi döngüsel bir süreçtir; bilgi analiz edilir, analiz edilen bilgi yeni programlarda kullanılır ve sürecin devamlılığı için tekrar tekrar incelenebilir. Bu yüzden entegre pazarlama iletişiminin ana hedefini mevcut ve potansiyel müşteriler için uzun süreli sadakate dayalı karlı ilişkiler oluşturmak olarak özetleyebiliriz.
Entegre pazarlama iletişimini iletişim çalışmalarını ve uygulamalarını kapsayan bir şemsiye olarak nitelendirebiliriz. Bu yaklaşıma göre her bir hedef kitleye bir iletişim stratejisi gereklidir. Bu strateji, iletişim türlerinde (reklam, halkla ilişkiler, satış tutundurma vb.) değişik iletişim araçlarının kullanılmasına temel oluşturmaktadır. Değişik iletişim türlerindeki entegre çalışmalar ile açık, tutarlı ve yüksek derece iletişim etkisi oluşturmak mümkün hale gelmektedir. [7]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimini bir sinerji olarak kabul edebiliriz. Biribirinden farklı parçaları bir arada koordineli bir şekilde birleştirerek bu sinerji yakalanabilir. Daha önce de bahsettiğimiz gibi parçalar arası tutarlılık çok önemlidir. Bu sinerjinin sağlanması basit gibi görünse de, oldukça zor bir süreçtir.

Ülkemizde Entegre pazarlama iletişimini doğru olarak uygulayan kuruluş sayısı oldukça az olması bunu başarmanın ne kadar zor olduğunu açıkça ortaya koymaktadır. İletişim kanallarını doğru kullanan kuruluşlara örnek olarak Koç Holding’i verebiliriz. Koç Holding marka imajını destekleyen iletişim araçlarını doğru bir şekilde entegrasyonunu sağlayabilen ender Türk firmalarından bir tanesidir.

Pazarlama İletişimine Kitle İletişim Araçlarının Etkisi

Geçmişte pazarlamacılar kitle iletişim araçları seçimi ve tüketiciler üzerindeki etkisi üzerinde çok fazla yoğunlaşmamıştı. [8]

Klasik kitle iletişim araçlarının yerini artık yavaş yavaş internet ve mobil telefonlar almaktadır. Klasik kitle iletişim araçları tek yönlü bir iletişim sağlarken, yeni nesil kitle iletişim araçları etkileşimli bir iletişimi olanaklı hale getirmiştir.

Geleneksel kitle iletişim araçları marka üretimi konusunda oldukça popülerdi çünkü tek seferde çok fazla kişiye etki edebiliyorlardı. Bu yüzden de ulaşılan kişi başına maliyet düşük olmaktaydı. Fakat bu iletişim araçları tek yönlü olduğu için, müşterinin mesajı gönderen ile direk bir iletişimi söz konusu olmuyordu.

Geleneksel kitle iletişim araçlarını genel olarak yazılı, yayın ve destekleyici kitle iletişim araçları olarak üç kategoride toplamak mümkün. Yazılı medyalara örnek olarak gazete ve dergiler, yayın yapan medyaya örnek olarak televizyon ve radyo, destekleyici medyaya örnek olarak da bu iki kategorinin dışında kalan promosyon ürünleri, eğlence program iletişimleri gibi araçları örnek olarak verebiliriz. [9]

1990’lı yıllarda internetin yaygınlaşmaya başlamasıyla birlikte pazarlama dünyasında büyük bir değişim başlattı. Bir çok reklam internet üzerinden kolay ve çok ucuz bir şekilde yayınlanabilir oldu. Ürün tanıtımlarında tüketicilere yardımcı olmak amacı ile bir çok web sitesi kuruldu. İnternet reklamlarının en önemli artısı çift yönlü olmasıydı. Örneğin bir ürünün reklamının bir internet sitesine koyulduğunda müşterilerden anket vb. yöntemler ile geri bildirim alabilmeleri sağlandı.İnternetin diğer bir avantajı da bir çok formatta bilgiyi mesaja ekleyebiliyor olmasıdır. Bir internet reklamında yazılar, resimler, sesler, hareketli animasyonlar gibi bir çok bilgi kullanılabilir. İnternetin dezavantajı ise insanları sürekli bilgisayarlarını yanlarında taşıyamadığı için her istedikleri zaman interneti kullanamamalarıydı.

Mobilite kavramı son yıllarda gittikçe önem kazanmaya başladı. Çünkü artık akıllı telefonların yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte internet kullanım yaygınlığı hat safhaya ulaştı. İnsanlar her istedikleri yerden bilgiye artık kolayca ulaşabiliyor. Bu devrim tabi ki pazarlama dünyasını da temelden etkilemekte, artık pazarlamacılar tüketiciler ile her an etkileşim halinde olabiliyorlar. Diğer bir avantajı ise televizyon gibi her kitleye ulaşma gibi bir çaba içerisine girmek yerine daha niş alanlara odaklanıp sadece hedef kitleye yoğunlaşılmasına olanak sağlıyor.

Artık her yaştan bir çok kişi interneti ve mobil cihazları etkin bir şekilde kullanıyor. İnternet üzerinden alışveriş, bankacılık işlemleri, haber takibi, facebook, twitter, linkedin, youtube, msn, skype gibi birçok işlem ve uygulama mobil cihazlar üzerinden kullanılabiliyor. Durum böyle olunca da mobil reklam vermek cazip hale gelmeye başladı. Mobil reklam vermeyi cazip kılan diğer bir konu ise coğrafi konumun tespit edilebilmesi ve dolayısı ile coğrafi konum bazlı reklam verilebilmesi pazarlamacılar için gerçekten önemli bir konu. Örneğin bir mağazanın önünden geçerken tüketiciye mağazanın bir kampanyası hakkında bir mesaj göndermek veya indirim kuponu göndermek tüketicilere satın alma kararı verdirme noktasında çok etkin bir yöntem olabilir. Elbette televizyon gibi geleneksel medya araçları varlığını uzunca bir süre devam ettirecek gibi görünüyor ancak yeni nesil iletişim araçlarının etkinliği her geçen gün arttığı da su götürmez bir gerçek. [10]

Entegre pazarlama İletişiminin geleceği ile ilgili yapılan araştırmalara göre ilerleyen zamanlarda varlığını sürdürmeye devam edecek ve daha yaygın hale gelecek. Fakat entegre pazarlama iletişimi bir görüş olmaktan çıkacak ve yönetilebilmesi için yeni ihtiyaçlar ortaya çıkacak. Önündeki bir diğer engel ise ölçme ve değerlendirmenin zor olmasıdır. Bu sebepten dolayı teknolojik yetenekler ve modeller entegre pazarlama iletişiminin gelişimi açısından önemli rol oynayacaktır. [11]


Günümüz pazarlama yaklaşımlarının bir sonucu olarak firmalar tüketicinin aklından ve kalbinden geçeni daha iyi anlamaya ve günlük hayatta oluşan değişimlerin toplumları ve tüketicileri nasıl etkilediğini kavramaya biraz daha bağımlı hale gelmektedir. Bu sebepten dolayı tüketiciye doğru mesajı iletebilmek çok önemlidir. Teknolojik gelişmeler ile birlikte kitle iletişim araçlarını doğru kullanabilmenin önemi her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bu yüzden firmalar rekabet avantajı sağlamak için entegre pazarlama iletişimi kavramı çok iyi algılamalı ve uygulamalıdır. Bütün noktalarda firmanın misyon ve vizyonuna uygun, tutarlı mesajlar üretilmelidir.


1. Philip Kotler ve Gary Armstrong (2010). Principles of marketing – 14.baskı. sayfa:4

2. Philip J. Kitchen ve Inga Burgman (2010). Integrated Marketing Communication –

3. İ.Ü. İletişim Fakültesi, Gazetecilik Bölümü

4. Philip Kotler,Gary Armstrong, Marketing An Introduction, Prentice Hall 1996 s.450

5. A.Bülent Göksel, Füsun Kocabaş, Müge Erden, Pazarlama İletişimi Açısından Halkla İlişkiler ve Reklam, İstanbul: Yayınevi Yayıncılık, 1997, s.126

6. Kenneth Clow, Integrated Advertising, Promotion & Marketing Communication, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002): s.7.

7.Yavuz Odabaşı, Pazarlama İletişimi, Eskişehir Anadolu Üniversitesi Basımevi, 2.Baskı, 1998, s.183.

8. Jennings Bryant ve Dolf Zillmann, Media Effects Advance in Theory and Research 2008, bölüm 14, s.353
9. Journal of Business & Economics Research; Aralık 2009; 7, 12; ABI/INFORM Complete s.31

10. http://www.reklam.com.tr

11. Lynne Eagle, Philip J. Kitchen, Sandy Bulmer, European Journal of Marketing Vol. 41 No. 7/8, 2007 s.967.

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