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Ocak 16, 2014 Posted by | MBA | , , , , | Yorum bırakın

The History Of Turkish Stock Market



In this project, it will be expained the history of the Turkish Stock Market. To understand it clearly, first of all it is clarified some basic definitions.


A stock is an ownership share in a corporation. [1] Each of these shares denotes a part ownership for a shareowner, stockholder, or shareholder, of that company. Stocks are traded on exchanges all over the world, the largest is the New York Stock Exchange or NYSE.


Investopedia expains that ; “The stock market lets investors participate in the financial achievements of the companies whose shares they hold. When companies are profitable, stock market investors make money through the dividends the companies pay out and by selling appreciated stocks at a profit called a capital gain. The downside is that investors can lose money if the companies whose stocks they hold lose money, the stocks’ prices goes down and the investor sells the stocks at a loss. [2]


Although, we try to explain the history of Stock markets briefly, it takes a long pages of descriptions. Stock market was born very long ages ago because it is a need of humanity. It was occured when people changed goods or something like that. Is was a economic exchange between people. It changed day by day according to needs of people. The people who have the same art and trade comes together in fairs or kermis so during the time, it becomes the stock market as now.

In the near past, state, the community was formed which name was “loggia” by the traders of the Rome state. Spain traders interested in this community and they built up their own community name was “Lonca”. After that Spain trader came to Turkey and they laid the first foundations of the Turkish Stock Market. [3]

After trader guilds from Spain came to Turkey, at Tanzimat period the real stock exchange market was built up as a official institution. Before conquest of Istanbul, Venetians and Genoese put in their hands trade in Istanbul so we cannot gather clear information about the trade relations before that time.

Nevertheless, in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the government try to meet requirements by their own resources so lots of artists were trained at that period.


The Ottoman State had financial problems in the middle of the 17th century. At 18th century, there were some changes and reforms to overcome financial problems but economy went from bad to worst. At the same time, Ottoman military can not settle the military technological revolutions in Europe so they lost the war. This situation cause additional load to Ottoman economy. Moreover, Europe made price revolution, mercantilist applications broke down the tax system of the Ottoman state and influation had growth rapidly. At 19th century, Ottoman state try to meet credit requirement from Galata bankers. [11]

The origin of an organized securities market in Turkey has its roots in the second half of the 19th century. At early years, only foreign companies had exported their bond and stocks. The development leading the Ottoman State to obtain credit from abroad markets has been
starting since the Crimean War. The credits obtained from the foreign stock markets produced the transactions of state debenture bonds and shares. These transactions forced the establishing of a stock exchange. In the end, the first stock exchange in the Ottoman State was established with the name of “Stock exchange of Debenture bonds of Dersaadet” in 1866. In 1866, first official securities market was established which name “Dersaadet Securities Exchange” . At the end of the century, this securities market was become the largest stock markets in Eastern Europe. The minorities managed the securities market at that time.
After some period later, Turkish securities market was closed and reopen with a new name “Esham ve Tahvilat Borsası” in 1906.
In republican period 1926, it was established “Istanbul Securities and Foreign Exchange Bourse”. But these activities can not add movement to the market.
In 1936, the Turkish stock market locate in Ankara by government intervention. But then, it was relocated in Istanbul in 1941. In 1980s fast reconstruction shifted the stock market and there were observered very live market. [4]

The Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) was the only corporation in Turkey for securities exchange established to provide trading in equities, bonds and bills, revenue-sharing certificates, private sector bonds, foreign securities and real estate certificates as well as international securities. . The ISE was founded as an autonomous, professional organization in early 1986. It is situated in a modern building complex in the quarter of İstinye, on the European side of Istanbul, since May 15, 1995. [5] The chairman and chief executive officer of the ISE is Dr. İbrahim Turhan, who was appointed by the government on January 1, 2012. [6]

ISE is home to 320 national companies. Trading hours are 09:30–12:30 for the first session and 14:00–17:30 for the second session, on workdays. All ISE members are incorporated banks and brokerage houses. [6]

ISE price indices are computed and published throughout the trading session while the return indices are calculated and published at the close of the session only. The indices are: ISE National-All Shares Index, ISE National-30, ISE National-50, ISE National-100, Sector and sub-sector indices, ISE Second National Market Index, ISE New Economy Market Index and ISE Investment Trusts Index. The ISE National-100 Index contains both the ISE National-50 and ISE National-30 Index and is used as a main indicator of the national market. [6]

The ISE is a full member of
• World Federation of Exchanges (WFE),
• Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges (FEAS),
• International Securities Services Association (ISSA),
• International Capital Market Association (ICMA),
• European Capital Markets Institute (ECMI),
• World Economic Forum (WEF),
• Federation of European Securities Exchanges (FESE) and

An affiliate member of
• International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO).

The Borsa Istanbul (abbreviated as BIST) is the sole exchange entity of Turkey combining the former Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) (Turkish: İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası, IMKB), the Istanbul Gold Exchange (Turkish: İstanbul Altın Borsası, İAB) and the Derivatives Exchange of Turkey (Turkish: Vadeli İşlem Opsiyon Borsası, VOB) under one umbrella. It was established as an incorporated company with a founding capital of 423,234,000 (approx. US$240 million) on April 3, 2013, and began to operate on April 5, 2013. Its logo will be the traditional Ottoman mark for Istanbul, the tulip. Its slogan will be “worth investing”. [8][9]
Shareholders of Borsa Istanbul are: 49% Government of Turkey, 41% IMKB, 5% VOB, 4% IMKB members, 1% IMKB brokers and 0.3% IAB members. It is planned that all the Government-owned shares will be offered for sale. Among the executives of the nine-member board of directors, which is presided by former chairman of ISE İbrahim Turhan, are former deputy chairman of ISE Osman Akyüz, former head of VOB Işınsu Kestelli, Merrill Lynch Investment Bank General Manager Hüseyin Kelezoğlu and Chairman of Turkish Association of Capital Market Intermediary Institutions Attila Köksal.

A brief timeline and milestones of Turkish capital markets are presented below:

Figure 1.1 [7]

Historical Events In Istanbul Stokexchange Market From Borsa Istanbul Official Web Site [10]

1985 March: Appointment of Mr. Muharrem KARSLI as Chairman and CEO of the İMKB. December: Inauguration of the İMKB under the Chairmanship of Mr. Muharrem KARSLI
1986 January: Commencement of stock trading at the Cagaloglu building on January 3, 1986
1987 October: Commencement of daily calculation of İMKB Indices which had so far been calculated on a weekly basis
November: Moving to the new building in Karakoy and initiation of the Manual Board System
December: External auditing of listed companies required
1989 July: Establishment of the Settlement and Custody Center
August: Issuance of Decree 32 which allows foreign investors to purchase and sell all types of securities in Turkey and repatriate the proceeds
1990 March: Appointment of Mr. Yaman TORUNER as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the İMKB
1991 January: Commencement of the calculation of Financials and Industrials Indices in addition to the İMKB Composite Index
June: Initiation of the Bonds and Bills Market and commencement of Outright Purchases and Sales Transactions
1992 January: Transformation of the Settlement and Custody Center into an independent company
February: Commencement of trading of Corporate Bonds and Revenue-sharing Certificates in the Bonds and Bills Market
October: Acceptance of the İMKB as a full member to The World Federation of Exchanges (WFE, previously FIBV)
1993 January: Launch of the Rights Coupon Market and New Shares Market
February: Initiation of the Repo/Reverse Repo Market
October: Recognition of the İMKB by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as a “Designated Offshore Securities Market”
December: Initiation of computerized stock trading with 50 stocks
1994 April: Appointment of Mr. Tuncay ARTUN as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the İMKB
September: Initiation of Small Orders Market in the Bonds and Bills Market
November: Full automation of stock trading
1995 January:Launch of the Regional Markets and the Wholesale Market
March:Designation of İMKB Settlement and Custody Company as an “Eligible Foreign Custodian” by U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
March: Initiation of Custody Services on customer basis by the İMKB Settlement and Custody Company
April: Disclosure of detailed balance sheet and income statements of companies including footnotes
April: Initiation of short selling transactions April: Launch of the New Companies Market
May: Moving to the new building in Istinye
May: Establishment of the “ Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges ” (FEAS) with 12 members
May: Establishment of Investor Counselling Center designed to provide information on the İMKB’s operations and traded companies
May: Recognition of the İMKB as an “appropriate foreign investment market for the private and institutional Japanese investors” by the Japan Securities Dealers Association (JSDA)
July: Transformation of the İMKB Settlement and Custody Company into the İMKB Settlement and Custody Bank (Takasbank)
1996 January: Initiation of banking services of the İMKB Settlement and Custody Bank
July: Accepting of the applications for listing and trading on the İMKB International Market.
September: Foreign Currency Denominated Government Debt Securities started to traded at the Outright Purchases and Sales Market of the Bonds and Bills Market.
December: Launch of the International Bonds and Bills Market within the İMKB International Market
1997 January: Introduction of new Stock Market indices as integers with the drop of two digits from base values.
February: İMKB International Bonds and Bills Market has started its operations upon the listing of 40 international bonds issued by the Undersecretariat of Treasury for trading abroad.
August: Decease of İMKB Chairman & CEO Mr. Tuncay ARTUN
August: Launch of the Repo and Reverse Repo Market on İMKB International Market
October: Appointment of Mr. Osman BIRSEN as Chairman and CEO of the İMKB.
1999 January: İMKB started to calculate İMKB 100 Index on Euro basis.
May: İMKB Settlement and Custody Bank (Takasbank) introduced the client name-based custody system.
June: A “Memorandum of Cooperation” between the İMKB and London Stock Exchange was signed on June 2, 1999.
June: Memorandums of Cooperation were signed between the İMKB and the stock exchanges of Republics of Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
July: The new computerized trading software for the Bonds and Bills Market, which had been developed within the framework of Wide Area Network (WAN) project since 1996, had been successfully completed and put into operation.
August: Starting from August 24, 1999, short-selling transactions and margin trading became available in all stocks traded on the İMKB’s markets. Previously, authorized İMKB members had the opportunity to engage in short-selling transactions only in stocks constituting the İMKB-National 100 Index.
September: İMKB’s Executive Council changed the trading hours for the Bonds and Bill Market. Accordingly, trading started to take place between 9:30-12:00 and 13:00-17:00.
2000 May: İMKB participated in the capital of the Kyrgyz Stock Exchange by 27.4 percent upon its demutualization.
May: Primary dealership system was launched for Government Debt Securities.
June: İMKB participated in the capital of the Baku Stock Exchange by 5. 26 percent as the 19th shareholder.
July: The number of members operating from their main offices at the Bonds and Bills Market, as a part of the Wide Area Network (WAN) project, reached 50.
July: Within the context of Wide Area Network Project, trading at the İMKB’s Stock Market via workstations located at the headquarters of İMKB members started on July 31, 2000. The number of members operating at the Stock Market from their offices reached 98 at the end of 2000
2001 October: The “Memorandum of Understanding” signed between the Korea Stock Exchange and the İMKB in 1996, has been renewed indefinitely on October 18, 2001.
December: Transition to Ex-API system within the framework of the Wide Area Network has started gradually.
2002 August: Stocks of companies, trading of which were suspended by the İMKB for the reason that the disclosure requirements have not been fulfilled resulting with uncertaines preventing the formation of a health market, started to be traded off-exchange in line with the regulations entitled “Principles concerning off-exchange trading of stocks exchange trading of which have been suspended by the İMKB” published on July 19, 2004.
November: Osman Birsen was re-appointed as İMKB Chairman & CEO.
2003 March: All orders submitted to the Stock Market for all stocks and during all sessions have been required to include customer account numbers.
March: Regional Markets and New Companies Market were renamed as Second National Market and New Economy Market, respectively.
2004 November: The “ETFs Market” was established with an aim to provide an organized and transparent market for trading of participation certificates of the ETFs.
2005 February: İMKB Executive Council has decided to launch a new index namely “İMKB Corporate Governance Index”.
March: Between March 28-29, 2005, the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Member States’ stock exchanges representatives and OIC institutions met in Istanbul, Turkey for the first round-table meeting among the stock exchanges of the OIC Member States.
2006 December: As of December 27, 2006, the İMKB International Market and its submarkets (Depositary Receipts Market and International Market Bonds and Bills Market) was closed.
2007 April: International Bonds Market has started its operations within the İMKB Foreign Securities Market on April 16, 2007. In the Market, listed Turkish Sovereign Eurobonds have been traded.
August: İMKB started to calculate the Corporate Governance Index.
October: The “Memorandum of Understanding” was signed between the İMKBand the Shanghai Stock Exchange on October 16, 2007.
November: Appointment of Mr. Huseyin ERKAN as Chairman and CEO of the İMKB.
2008 October: Mr. Hüseyin Erkan was elected as the Working Committee Chairman and member of the Board of Directors of the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE).
2009 February: City Indices launched for 9 cities
March: The Emerging Companies Market was established.
May: Public Disclosure Platform launched
2009 August: İMKB Emerging Companies Market Regulation was published with an aim to provide an organized and transparent market for trading of companies with growth and development potential.
2010 May-December: IPO Summit Turkey
July: Inauguration of Continuous Auction via Market Making Trading Mechanism
October-November: Stocks started to be traded as classified into A, B, C groups, Implementation of Unconditional Order Cancellation, Initiation of Phase I of Reducement in Price Ticks
Bonds & Bills Market: Offering Market for Qualified Investors, The Interbank Repo-Reverse Repo Market, Repo Market for Specified Securities were established
December: 25. Anniversary of the İMKB
2011 January: İMKB launched the Automatic Circuit Breaker System.
January: Establishment of The Interbank Repo-Reverse Repo Market.
April: New regulation on the sale methods in the Primary Market to be initially listed on the Exchange.
•Book Building and Sale with a Fixed Price Method (Fixed Price Method)
•Book Building and Sale with Variable Price Method (Variable Price Method)
July:İMKB launched the Dividend Indices
2012 January: Appointment of İbrahim M. Turhan as İMKB Chairman & CEO
March: İMKB launched the Financial Education Platform “Conscious Investor”
May: İMKB started calculating IPO index
May: Launch of İMKB Free Trade Platform


1- http://www.wikinvest.com/wiki/What_is_a_stock%3F#_note-0 Wall Street Words: An A to Z Guide to Investment Terms for Today’s Investor by David L. Scott. Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN-10: 0618176519 pg359
2- http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/stockmarket.asp (Access Date:15.12.2013)
3- http://www.hakanguclu.com
4- http://forexturkk.tr.gg/T.ue.rkiye-h-de-Borsa-Tarihi.htm
5- Istanbul Stock Exchange: “İMKB’nin Kuruluşundan İtibaren Önemli Gelişmeler” (Timeline of important events since 1985)
6- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borsa_Istanbul
7- Turkish Capital Markets & The Brokerage Industry 2007, TSPAKB Publication No. 35
8- “Borsa İstanbul’un kuruluş sermayesi”. TRT Haber (in Turkish). 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2013-12-18. http://www.trthaber.com/haber/ekonomi/borsa-istanbulun-kurulus-sermayesi-81027.html
9- “First gong of Istanbul’s new bourse to be banged”. Hürriyet Daily News. 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2013-12-18. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/first-gong-of-istanbuls-new-bourse-to-be-banged.aspx?pageID=238&nID=44304&NewsCatID=346
10- “Milestones In Borsa Istanbul History”. http://borsaistanbul.com/en/corporate/about-borsa-istanbul/milestones-in-borsa-istanbul-history

Ocak 3, 2014 Posted by | MBA | , , | 1 Yorum

HR Transformation


Nowadays, HR professionals become strategic partners of the organizations and they  have  significant roles such as efective recruitment, fair salary sharing, education of employees and organizational development. So HR professionals should support organization to overcome the changes on economical, global, technological, demographic challenges. The transformation starts with HR.

HR professionals should not only deal with his/her job, they also deal with outside and they should have same objects with the organization such as customers, investors.

Traps Should Be Avoided (Viruses)

–          HR transformation should fit the organization culture and roots.

–          HR transformation aim should be the enrich the organization, not only the HR.

–          Talent management, performans management, promotion process is only small part of transformation. The whole transformation should integrate all the processes.

–          HR transformation should not be performed only a single manager.

–          HR transformation finishes when HR helps the organization to perform its strategy.

–          Productivity improvements are key factors for the transformation.

A Real HR Transformation Definition is an approach that redefining the how innovative, compatible and work focused HR activities are prosecuted that help business to keep their promise to the customers, investors and other stakeholders. This process should be defined clearly.

There are four main steps to make HR transformation :

1.Step : Why should be done HR transformation?

If the reasons of HR transformation are completely understood, it would be easier to achive it. To make a sustainable transformation, it should be directly fit the organization strategy and the environmental factors. To overcome this, you should start to work from work environment and stakeholder’s expectations. It is important to determine whether the organization is ready to transform.

In the globalizing world, to make a efficient transformation, HR professionals should also deal with demographic trends, gender differences, generation, workforce diversification, political enviroment, market conditions, general work conditions, organization strategy etc.

The stakeholders of a company are employees, managers, customers, investors, rivals, global suppliers, regulators, and public. Thus HR proffessionals should care about all these.

Customers become more knowledgeable and need more day by day. Customers are more selective than before so the mission of HR proffesionals is understanding customers and developing relationship with them. To improve relationship, they might visit customers periodically.

Investors also give importance to intengible values. They pay attention more  leadership and quality of organization rather than balance sheet. So the duty of HR proffessionals is to give confidence about the future of the organization to investors by applying good HR practices.

HR proffessionals should understand both current and future rivals. They should also determine the strenghts and weaknesses of the rivals in the market.

The suppliers of the company can be a source of advantage or disadvantage so HR should  make balanced and cost-effective contracts with critical suppliers.

Regulations might affect the ability to compete of the company so HR managers should learn regulations earlier and should be  the active appliers of the regulations.
2.Step : What is the results and benefits of transformation?

The HR facilities should be measued such as “How many people are recruited”,”How much hour education has given” but not enough. First of all, the expectations of the stakeholders should be satisfied. For example, it can be monitored the efficiency of the employees after the transformation.

Capability represents what the company is  famous for. It is also non-financial value. For example, Apple is famous for its user-frienly products or Google is famous for the ability to forming the market etc. The capabilities also represents the results of HR facilities and company strategy. Talent, speed, collabrative thinking, responsibiliy, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer relationship, innovation, cooperation strategy, simplicity, social responsibility, risk, efficiency are the main capabilities in a company.

The company should determine the key capabilities to its future success. According to the priorities, it should be prepare the objective cards. The HR transformation results can be defined and monitored by focusing the results of the capabilities.

3.Step : How to transform? / Redesigning HR

This stage is the origin of HR transformation. There are 3 question that should be answered.
Who are you? (vision) : It represents the identity and image of the company that HR strategy offer. It focuses the future,creates the expectations, determine the direction and guide the evoluation of HR function.
What you provide? (mission or value proposition) : It consist of the non-financial capabilities to succeed. For instance, HR department should provide the efficiency.
Why do you do this? (results wanted to be obtained) : It may consist of the revenue growth, customer loyalty, total market profit. This allows to monitor the HR progress and the influence on work.

In the HR transformation the operational tasks and transformational tasks should be seperated.There are 5 main channels that share the responsibilities.
– Service Center : Techology innovations allow the centerilizations of different organizations such as IT to provide efficiency and reduce costs. Service centers should be available 7/24.
– Enterprise HR (HR Management) : The roles of enterprise HR is ; to provide consistent culture and image that includes whole business, to implement CEO’s agenda, make sure the HR workers are in the same line with the company objectives, solve conflicts between HR specialists and settled HR, to maintain the improvement of HR proffessionals.

– Settled HR (Strategic Partnership) : Clarify the strategy, perform the organizational audits, to manage skills and organization, to enrich the capabilities, leadership are the main roles of settled HR.
– Specialists Center : Provides consultancy services in the organization.
– Operational Implementation : Individual case studies, perform the operational tasks such as recruitment, analysing and reporting are the main duties of this channel.

After clarifying the HR department’s strategy and structure, then it must be focused to improve HR studies. There are two dimentions of HR facilities.
Content: What are HR facilities? (People, Performance, Communication, Business)
Process: How do we improve HR studies or how do we restructure them. (Alignment, Integration, Innovation)

4.Step : Who does it? /  Allocating Responsibilities
To achive the HR transformation, it should be allocated right people in right time and in right way. Participation is one of the most important factor to succeed. People are owing if they participate to the process. HR leaders and proffecionals, managers, outside customers and consultants should be participated to the HR transformation.Each group has different responsibilies for the transformation. For example HR leaders and professionals design the process, managers ensure to fit between transformation and company objectives, customers guide activities which are related to them, consultants make suggestions and warn about errors.

Milestones Of Each Step

1.Step Milestones: Business Context
– Accept HR transformation’s benefit
– Create a transformation team
– Identify new business reasons that requires the transformation of HR, evaluate and give priority
– Define and share main business reason to make HR transformation.
2.Step Milestones : Results
– Make organizational capability check to identify at least 2 best skills that business strategy requires.
– Make operational the key capabilities and determine the there the HR transformation results.
– Show all stakeholders how to benefit the capabilities that are obtained.
3.Step Milestones : Redesigning HR
– Define mission, vision expressions.
– Define clearly the HR organization.
– Give priorities to the HR facilities and integrate.
– Determine roles and responsibilities.
– Invest talented HR professionals who are capable to perform transformation.
4.Step Milestones : HR Responsiblities
– Choose right people to the trasformation team.



HR professioanls should not only focus entirely in the function of HR but also focus on all stakeholders such as customers, investors. HR professionals are also business partners of business to achive the  company goals.



1. [HR Transformation, Dave Ulrich, Justin Allen, Wayne Brockbank, Jon Younger, Mark Nyman, Humanist]

Mayıs 22, 2013 Posted by | MBA | , , , , | Yorum bırakın

Country Of Origin Effect – Japanese Brands


The brand image has a significant role that consumer’s buying behavious. There are so many factors that affects the consumers. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the country of origin effect, historical background of Japanese culture and the make a detailed analysis of Japanese electronic brands and impressions from origin. Thus historical background of this country, their industry, the features that influence the understanding of country of origin effect deeply.  The informations were collected from literature, media search and academic resources.

 County of Origin Effect (COE)

County of origin effect is one of the most significant factors that affects the brand image. If a brand is origined from a spesific country, it may lead consumer to have positive or negative perception on it. The counrty of the brand or product may affect the buying behaviour of the consumer because counsumers may make generalizations about the products. For instance, Japanese products are famous for quality and especially they are good at electronics so if consumer wants to buy a television, he/she may prefer japanese television brand.
According to another definition; “ The country of origin effect (COE) is a psychological effect which occurs when customers are unfamiliar with a product (e.g., product quality) and the image of the product’s country of origin has a “halo effect” on the customers’ evaluation of the product.” [1]

A positive county image may allow marketers to introduce new products because they can gain quickly acceptance and recognition. This is called positive country of origin effect. So the company gain competetive advantage by selling these new products. Sometimes the opposite situation may occur; a negative country image may damage the companies image this is called negative country of origin effect. [2]

Figure 1.1 – (a) Country-of-origin (halo) effect (Han, 1989) and (b) Model for current study.

The counrty origin effect is not stable, sometimes it may change during the time. For example in the last few decades Korean cars were very low quality but now they can break this negative image.
The demographics also affect the consumer buying behaviour. According to researches, elderly, less educated, and politically conservative people are more influenced by country of origin effect.
Country of origin effect also is dependent to the cathegory of the product. For example it is more intensive when choose new car but it is less intensive when buy new clothes.


History of Japanese Social and Economic Structure

Japan comes in a combination of four large, three thousand five hundred medium-sized and small islands in the Pasific Ocean. Although the majority of the population in cities, agriculture is an important part of the Japanese economy. Japan is the world’s third industrial country. Generally, it occurs heavy industry. Major industrial plants are automobile, electronic and optical equipment, locomotives, aircraft, chemical and machine manufacturing factories of all kinds. 26% of the labor force working in the industrial sector. Most of the products are exported to other countries.

Figure 1.2 – The geographic map of Japan

When Renaissance Europeans reached the Japan in the 16th century, they were quite admiring of Japan. Japan was rich in precious metal. As a result of this, Japan was to become a major exporter of copper and silver during the period. Japan was also perceived as a sophisticated feudal society with a high culture and advanced pre-industrial technology. They expertised their skills. They were more populated and more urbanized than European countries. European visitors were amazed by the quality of Japanese craftsmanship and metalsmithing.[3]

The Japanese economy was one of the earliest in Asia to industrialise. During the Meiji restoration period in the mid 19th century, the Japanese government actively pursued Western-style reforms and development – hiring more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics and technology to Japan. [4]

World War II left Japan battered. They lost most of their values. Most of the country’s infrastructure and production capacity was declined during the war, and its capital city, Tokyo, lay in ruins. Most of the industrialized world viewed Japan as a defeated enemy, and the attitude of its Asian neighbors was even less favorable. Faced with such a bleak outlook, the people and the new, democratic government of Japan had little choice but to get to work. [5]

Japan recovered himself very quickly. In 1951 they reached their economic position in 1935. 16 year is not so long time such a big revolution. To achieve this they made so many reforms in every area to change economic and social structure. For example, they gave some rights to employees and women. In 1947, a liberal constitution was declared. In 1951, they re-gained the right to establish foreign relations by San Francisco Peace Treaty. After this date, the country has reached to internationally competitive. In 1964, Tokyo Olympics provive to regain the country’s international reputation and it was an important turning point.

As we mentioned Japan has made so much reforms between 1945 and 1951. The main purpose of these reforms were to stimulate the economy by making an efficient production system. During this period, they gave priority to the steel industry to provide raw metarial to the engine industries. They made so many investments to metallurgical and chemical industry, thus they gain a rapid development acceleration of electronic and consumer goods. [6]

Another key factor behind rapid development of country is the existence of a good level of educated workforce.[7]

There are generally two approach that affects Japanese management style. First, after World War II, American thought system implementation of advocating universal / organizational approach. Second, the success of Japanese industry, local culture due to perform specific methods of organization and management join advocate / cultural process approach. Japan had gained knowledge from Western counrties and implement it by combaining its own local culture. Thus, cultural relativism problems caused by Japan had overcomed beyond the time of development.[8]

In general, Japanese management practices were influenced by religious and cultural factors, the decision delivery systems, production systems, continuous improvement (Kaizen) approach and the form of specific human resource management practices. Another interesting point of Japanese management is that the senior managers don’t give strategic decisions. The decisions are taken by everyone in the group. This management system is contrary of Western and American management system. In Japanese businesses, everyone has a chance to give decision. Everyone that will be affected by this decision, also read and sign. This is called “Ring System”. [9]

The main purpose of the ring system is to achive more cooperative employees. This ring system makes the process more quality but it also make the process slower.

Nowadays, it is not possible to deny the importance and effect of Japan in business management. Especially several essays focus on production system and technique of this country.  It is important to analyze understanding of management of Japan industry because of being the  second in economy all around the world. It is underlined that the characteristics of Japan society affect their success in this field. Companies, suppliers and relation between workers are basic steps of this situation.

Japanese engineering is famous for their high quality products. To achive this approach they use some special tecniques, principles and ideas. Japanese engineers are creating innovative management approaches, tools, tecniques and technologies. Engineering is the design and implementation of solutions to solve problems. Good engineers use scientific principles and ideas that they apply. There are also plenty of good engineers in Japan. [10] Figure 1.3 – Private consuption growth, public investment growth and real GDP growth of the Japan between March 2007 and March 2012. [11]

Japanese Electronic Sector
            Today, electronic changes the nature of the world. It also attact most of other sectors so it is very important industry. Information society needs speed and only electronic devices can response this change. Despite the recent economic crisis, the electronic manufacturing service sector is still performing strongly and it is still estimating to grow. From mobile phones to the internet, from telecommunications to satellite TV, every single unit is advansing rapidly as the other sectors.[12]

The Japanese electronics industry has a high concentration of leading companies and a reputation for high quality products. Japanese companies have been responsible for a number of important innovations, including having pioneered the transistor radio and the Walkman (Sony), the first mass-produced laptops (Toshiba), the VHS recorder (JVC), and solar cells and LCD screens (Sharp) [13]

Japanese companies are good at electronics and they are the world leaders in the production of compact disc players, video cameras, laptop computers, fax machines, photocopiers, cell phones and various key computer components. Japan is providing a wide variety of new products and Technologies such as television, mobile phones, personal computers etc. [14]
Japanese Global Electronic Brands

In this part, it is given brief historical information about important Japanese global electronic brands. [15]

Allied Telesis is a network infrastructure/telecommunications company. It is founded in 1987. The company is a global driver of secure Ethernet and IP Access solutions and an industry leader in the deployment of IP triple play networks over copper and fiber access infrastructure.

Official Web Site : http://www.alliedtelesis.com

Alpline Electronics Inc. is a Japanese electronic company that is specialized car audio and navigation systems. It is a manufacturer of Alps Electric. It is headquartered in Iwaki, Fukushima.

Official Web Site : http://www.alpline.com

  Brother Industries Ltd is a multinational electrical equipment company. It is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan Its products are printers, multifunction printers, sewing machines, large machine tools, label printers, typewriters, fax machines, and other computer-related electronics.

Official Web Site : http://www.brother-usa.com

  Melco Holdings Inc.  is a family business founded by Makoto Maki in 1975 and is located in Japan. Its most known brand is Buffalo. Buffalo Inc. is currently one of the 14 subsidiaries of Melco Holdings Inc., It also has audio equipment manufacturer, the company entered the computer peripheral market in 1981 with an EEPROM writer.

Official Web Site : http://www.melcoinc.com

Canon is a specialized in the manufacture of imaging and optical products such as cameras, camcorders, photocopiers, steppers, computer printers and medical equipment. It is headquartered ted in Ota, Tokyo, Japan.

Official Web Site : http://www.canon.com

Casio Computer Co., is a multinational electronics manufacturing company  headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Its products are calculators, mobile phones, cameras, musical instruments and watches. It was founded in 1946.

Official Web Site : http://www.casio.com

Clarion Co. is manufacturer of car audio, automotive navigation systems, AutoPCs, visual equipment, bus equipment, and communication equipment. It is majority owned by Hitachi. Clarion has an OEM relationship with many automotive companies, providing car headunits and components to them for their production vehicles.

Official Web Site : http://www.clarion.com

Eizo Corporation, is a manufacturer of high-end computer displays. A Japanese corporation, it was founded in March 1968 but did not adopt  its current name until 1999, when Nanao Corporation and Eizo merged. It has its headquarters in Hakusan, Ishikawa Prefecture. “Eizo” means “image” in Japanese.

Official Web Site : http://www.eizo.com

Seiko Epson Corporation, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the world’s largest manufacturers of computer printers, information and imaging related equipment.Headquartered in Suwa, Nagano, Japan. The company manufactures inkjet, dot matrix and laser printers, scanners, desktop computers, business, multimedia and home theatre projectors, large home theatre televisions, robots and industrial  automation equipment, point of sale docket printers and cash registers, laptops, integrated circuits, LCD components and other associated electronic components.

Official Web Site : http://www.epson.com

Fuji Electric Holdings Co. operating under the brand name FE,  is a Japanese holding company that retains manufacturing companies of pressure transmitters, flowmeters, gas analyzers, controllers, inverters, pumps, generators, ICs, motors, and power equipment.

Official Web Site : http://www.epson.com

Fuji Xerox Co. is a joint venture partnership between the Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co.  (75%) and the American document management company Xerox (25%) to develop, produce and sell xerographic and document-related products and services in the Asia-Pacific region. Its headquarters is in Midtown West in Tokyo Midtown, Akasaka, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.  Fuji Xerox is the world’s longest running joint venture between a Japanese and an American company.

Official Web Site : http://www.fujixerox.com

Fujitsu Limited is a multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is the world’s third-largest IT services provider measured by revenues after IBM and Hewlett-Packard.

Official Web Site : www.fujitsu.com

Hitachi, is multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.  It is the parent of the Hitachi Group and forms part of the DKB Group of companies.  Hitachi is business segments are : Information and Telecommunication Systems, Electrical Systems, Social and Industrial Systems, Automotive Systems, Electronic Component Devices, Construction, and Financial services.

Official Web Site : http://www.hitachi.com

  Victor Company of Japan, usually referred to as JVC, is  international consumer and professional electronics corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan’s first televisions, and for developing the Video Home System (VHS) video recorder.

Official Web Site : http://www.jvc.com

  Kenwood Corporation is a manufacturer of amateur radio as well as Hi-Fidelity and portable audio equipment.

Official Web Site : http://www.kenwood.com

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is a multinational electronics and electrical equipments manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It manufactures electric and architectural equipment and the company is a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels.  The Corporation was established in 1921.

Official Web Site : http://www.mitsubishielectric.com

NEC Corporation is a multinational provider of information technology services and products, with its headquarters in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. NEC provides information technology (IT) and network solutions to business  enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies.  The company was known as the Nippon Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC.

Its NEC Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging it with Renesas Electronics. NEC is a member of the Sumitomo Group.

Official Web Site : http://www.nec.com

Nikon Corporation is a multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, mastered in optics and imaging products. Its products are cameras, camera lenses, binoculars, microscopes, ophthalmic lenses, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication.

Official Web Site : http://www.nikon.com

Nintendo Co.is a multinational consumer electronics company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. Nintendo is the world’s largest video game company by revenue.  Founded in 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi. It originally produced handmade hanafuda cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels.

Official Web Site : http://www.nintendo.com

Panasonic Corporation, is a multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan. The company was founded in 1918, and has grown to become one of the largest Japanese electronics producers.

Official Web Site : http://www.panasonic.com

Pioneer Corporation is a multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. The company was founded by Nozomu Matsumoto in 1938 in Tokyo as a radio and speaker repair shop, and its current president is Susumu Kotani. Pioneer played a role in the development of interactive cable TV, the Laser Disc player, the first automotive Compact Disc player, the first detachable face car stereo, Supertuner technology, DVD and DVD recording, plasma display (branded as Kuro), and Organic LED display (OLED).

Official Web Site : http://www.pioneer.com

Sharp Corporation is a multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products. Headquartered in Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan. It was founded in 1912 and takes its name from one of its founder’s first inventions, the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil, which was invented by Tokuji Hayakawa in 1915. It  is the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world.

Official Web Site : http://sharp-world.com

Sony Coorporation is one of the biggest multinational company of Japan. It is headquarted in  Konan Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is focused on electronics and diversificate  game, entertainment and financial services sectors.  Sony is ranked 87th on the 2012 list of Fortune Global 500.

Official Web Site : http://www.sony.com

Toshiba Corporation is a multinational engineering and electronics corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.  Its products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems,  electronic components and materials, power systems, industrial and social infrastructure systems, household appliances,  medical equipment, office equipment, lighting and logistics.

Official Web Site : http://www.toshiba.com



Nowadays, branding becomes a key subject in marketing both in academic and business world. Branding has not only applied to goods and services, it has also used in person, an opinion and place such as country, region, city marketing. Thus, it can be talked about brand personality of countries similar to product brand personality. [16]

Today, it is a well known fact that, branding is closely related with origin. Brands also have a personality like human beings. Consumer decision making behaviour is very complex and so many things affects their behaviour. There are lots of cues to make final purchase decision. The brand and the brand meaning, evokes preferences play an important role for the consumer. So, today the brand with the coming of becoming one of the most important issues in the application of marketing area is also not limited to only the goods and services, it also contains individuals, ideas, cases and places(like country, region, city). Brand image, brand personality, brand associations, communication messages influence the perception of customers about the quality of a brand.

Figure  1.4 : Information Cues, Graphic Depiction (adapted from Keller,1993)

There are many factors that influence country image such as economy, technology, wealth index, regulatory mechanisms, government and business history. [17]

Economy :
One of the main factors that influence customers’ perceptions on a country is the level of the country’s economy. Most of the countries with a positive COO mentioned above are highly industrialized, developed countries.
Technology :
It is an expected result, if the brand country has higher technology, it is absolutely gives positive perception to the consumers. For example, Japan has known their high-tech so expecially japanese brands have known good in technological products.
Wealth index:
This refers to the perceived overall wealth of a country measured. It affects the perception of brands if there are so many billionaries, millionaries, luxury goods industry, leisure industries, individuals income etc. It  offers customers a cue to infer the level of product quality, variety, and perceived credibility of the products/brands.
Regulatory mechanisms :
Regulatory mechanisms such as Intellectual Property Rights law (IPR), online piracy laws, anti-fraud regulations and others create a sense of perceived security in the minds of businesses and customers about a specific country.
Government :
The government management type such as capitalism, democracy, monarchy also affects the counrty image positive or negative.
Business history :
Country’s past successes or failures of a businesses also affect the country image. If there are lots of success stories as Japan, it is easy to attact consumers.

Brands also make advertisements to make positive feelings to their brands. For instance, the belief that purchasing foreign products hurts the local economy by causing loss of jobs, and that it is morally wrong and unpatriotic. So foreign products have to spend more effort than local brands.


But in some market segments foreign products have a substantial advantage because they are foreign.

On the other hand, some companies that have positive country image, they efficiently use the benefits of their country image. To highlight this point lets say, Japan has known quality of their product so the new brand can use this positive image in their marketing facilities.
Figure  1.5 : This graph shows the cultural diffences of brands.

If we summarize all the things as we mentioned above, in the challenging marketing conditions brands should have a personality to affect consumers positively. County of origin is one of the most important facts for consumer’s perception. Marketer should not be missed the importance of country of origin effect.


1. [Han, C.M. (1989): Country image: halo or summary construct, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 22-229.]

2. [Hulland, J./Todino, H.S./Lecraw, D.J. (1996): Country-of-Origin Effects on Sellers’ Price Premiums in Competitive Philippine Markets, in: Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 57-79.]


3. [http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japonya%27n%C4%B1n_ekonomik_tarihi]

4. [http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/japan/industry-sector-industries.html]

5. [http://www.japaninc.net/history-of-the-modern-japanese-economy/]

6. [Japon Yönetim Anlayışı ve şirket ağları (KEİRETSU) analizi, Muammer ZERENLER – Rıfat İRAZ, p759-776]

7. [Yıldız, Gültekin ve Ardıç, Kadir. (2002), “Japon  İşletmecilik Uygulamaları Türk  İşletme Yönetimine Bir Model Olabilir Mi?”,  Mimar ve Mühendis Dergisi, Year 6, June-July-August Number 31.p.41]

8. [Sargut, A.S. (2001),  Kültürler Arası Farklılaşma ve Yönetim.  İmge Kitabevi, Ankara.p.221]

9. [Tekin, Mahmut. (2003), Üretim Yönetimi, Cilt 2, Konya:Günay Matbaası. Vergiliel Tüz, Melek. (2001),  Japon ve Amerikan Yönetim Modeli (Türkiye Uygulaması), İstanbul:Alfa Publication. p.22]

10. [Engineered In Japan : Japanese Technology – Management Practices, JEFFREY K AUTOR LIKER,JOHN E AUTOR ETTLIE,JOHN C AUTOR CAMPBELL, p3]

11. [http://bilbo.economicoutlook.net/blog/?p=19528]

12. [http://www.qfinance.com/sector-profiles/electronics]

13. [The mighty, fallen – Ex-world-beaters swallow their pride and do deals with foreign rivals” . The Economist. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.]

14. [http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=922&catid=24&subcatid=157]

15. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_electronics_brands and official web sites of brands]

16. [İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi İşletme Bölümü, Ülkelerin marka kişiliği üzerine bir araştırma, Sema Dündar Kurtulmuş,p:286]

17. [Martin Roll(2008), Branding: The Country Of Origin Effect, http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2008/03/branding-the-co.html#.UXw1ZqK8Cbw]

Mayıs 8, 2013 Posted by | MBA | , , , | 5 Yorum



Günümüz pazarlama evreninde entegre pazarlama iletişimini doğru anlamak, entegrasyonun ne anlama geldiğini kavrayabilmek ve müşteriyi doğru noktalardan yakalayıp uzun süreli sadakate dayalı ilişkiler kurabilmek için neler yapılması gerektiğini bu makalede irdeliyor olacağız. Bu kavramlara girmeden önce pazarlamanın ve pazarlama iletişiminin ne olduğu konularına kısa bir giriş yapacağız.

Pazarlama Kavramı

Pazarlama müşteriyle ilgilenir ve karlı müşteri ilişkileri kurmaya yardımcı olur. Pazarlamanın birincil amacı, müşterilere üstün değer sözü vererek mevcut müşterileri elinde tutup, yeni müşteriler elde ederek müşteri portföyünü genişletmektir. [1]

Pazarlama, kişilerin ve firmaların amaçlarına uygun şekilde değişimi sağlamak üzere, ürünlerin, hizmetlerin ve düşüncelerin yaratılmasını, fiyatlandırılmasını, dağıtımını ve tutundurma çabalarını planlama sürecidir. Bir başka tanıma göre pazarlama, işletmenin amaçlarını gerçekleştirmek, mevcut ve potansiyel müşterilerin istek ve arzularını tatmin etmek için mal ve hizmetleri üreticilerden tüketiciye doğru yönlendiren faaliyetlerin tümüne denilmektedir.

Artan rekabet koşullarında işletmeler, rekabet üstünlüğü sağlamak veya var olan rekabet üstünlüklerini koruyabilmek için yavaş yavaş popülaritesini yitiren klasik pazarlama teknikleri yerine, çağdaş pazarlama yöntemlerini iyi algılayıp, işletmelerinin pazarlama stratejilerine uygun hale getirip etkin bir şekilde kullanmak durumundalar. Pazarlama stratejisi olarak fiyat veya ürün bazlı yaklaşımlar yerine müşterinin ihtiyaç ve beklentilerini tatmin edecek ürünleri, yani müşteri odaklı stratejileri kullanmak işletme açısından çok daha faydalı olacaktır.
Müşteri odaklı pazarlamada öncelikle hangi ürün veya hizmetin satılacağına ve bu ürün/hizmet’in nerede üretileceği sorularına cevap aranmalıdır. Diğer önemli noktalar ise fiyat, miktar ve satış noktalarıdır. Pazarlama aktiviteleri sırasında bu soruları doğru bir şekilde cevaplayabilmek, pazarlama faaliyetinin başarısında etkin rol oynayacaktır.

Pazarlama İletişimi

Günümüzde teknolojinin hızla artmasıyla birlikte, çok farklı iletişim kanalları ortaya çıkmış ve hedef kitleye doğru kanaldan ulaşmak önemli bir hal almıştır. Bu sürecin doğal bir sonucu olarak firmaların iletişim konusundaki ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda “pazarlama iletişimi” kavramı ortaya çıkmıştır.

Pazarlama iletişimi: “Bir kuruluşun var oluşuyla ürün ve hizmetleriyle ilişkide bulunduğu ve bulunacağı kesimlere neler vadettiği, neler sağlayabileceğini anlatmasını sağlayacak iletişim çabalarının tümüdür”

Bir başka tanıma göre ise pazarlama iletişimi: “Hedef tüketicilerin tutum ve davranışlarını istenen yönde güçlendirmeyi, tersi yönde ise bunu değiştirmeye ya da amaçlanan yeni tutum ve davranışı oluşturmayı hedefleyen ikna edici iletişimi sürecidir”

Yapılan tanımlara bakılarak; pazarlama iletişiminin, pazarlama eylemleriyle beraber; aynı zamanda işletme çevresi, sosyal sorumluluğu ve imajıyla ilgili olan çabalarla doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak satışların arttırılması, giderek ürünün ve işletme ömrünün uzatılması amaçladığı söylenebilir.

Pazarlama iletişimi, spesifik olarak tutundurma işlevlerini desteklediği halde kapsam olarak tüm pazarlama bileşen ve eylemlerini kapsayan özelde iki genelde çok yönlü ve amaçlı bilgi verme, ikna etme ve hatırlatma eylemlerini kapsamaktadır.

Pazarlama İletişimi Karması

Pazarlama iletişim denilince; eskiden sadece pazarlama karması elemanlarından tutundurma çalışmaları (reklam, halkla ilişkiler, promosyon, kişisel satış) akla gelmekteydi. Günümüzde ise pazarlama iletişimini tutundurma çalışmaları ile beraber, ürünün özellikleri ve ambalajıyla başlayan, satış ve satış sonrası hizmetlere kadar uzanan geniş bir kavram haline gelmiştir.

Bu bakımdan pazarlama iletişimi elemanları denince, pazarlama karması elemanları (ürün, fiyat, dağıtım ve tutundurma) da kastedilmektedir. Yine de pazarlama iletişimi kavramı içersinde yer alan ana kavramları belirtmekte yarar var.

    • Reklam
    • Halkla ilişkiler
    • Satış geliştirme
    • Satış personeli ve kişisel satış
    • Ürünün ambalajı, stili, rengi
    • Marka
    • Satış noktalarının yeri ve niteliği
    • Müşteri hizmetleri
    • Satış sonrası hizmetler
    • Doğrudan pazarlama
    • Pazarlama araştırmaları
    • Yeni ürün geliştirme

Entegre Pazarlama İletişimi

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi yirminci yüzyılın sonlarına doğru ortaya çıkmış ve önemi her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bilgi teknolojilerinin etkisi ile pazarlama ve pazarlama iletişiminin çalışma alanı değişmiş ve entegre pazarlama iletişimini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Kitle iletişim araçlarının artması, müşterileri marketlerinin daha küçük segmentlere ayrılması ve internetin daha yaygın kullanılmaya başlanması gibi inovasyonlar entegre pazarlama iletişimini etkilemiştir. Bu gelişmeler pazarlamacıları rekabetin yoğun olduğu alandan çıkıp, daha spesifik olarak müşterilerin istek ve ihtiyaçlarını karşılayabilecekleri ve uzun süre sadakate dayalı ilişki kurabilecekleri niş alanlara sevk etmiştir.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, farklı iletişim kanallarından gönderilen mesajların daha koordineli ve tutarlı oluşturulmasına yardımcı olmaktadır. Ayrıca bu kavram paydaş gruplarına çok büyük önem göstermekte, müşteri sadakatine dayalı stratejik ilişki inşa etmeye çalışmaktadır. Günümüzde entegre pazarlama iletişimi ile ilgili akademik araştırma azdır.  Bu az sayıda araştırmanın büyük çoğunluğu genellikle Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki Halkla İlişkiler firmalarının yaptığı araştırmalardır.[2]

Entegre pazarlama iletişiminin gelişim sürecini doğru anlayabilmek için entegrasyon kavramının doğru anlaşılması çok önemlidir. Entegrasyon iletişim araçlarının pazarlama stratejilerine uygun olarak birleştirilmesi olarak tanımlanabilir.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, pazarlama iletişiminin farklı bir yaklaşımla tasarlanması ve iletişimin tüm biçimlerinin birlikte planlanmasıdır. Pazarlamacıyı ölçülebilir pazarlamaya yöneltir ve teknolojiyi sonuna kadar kullanmaya teşvik eder. [3]


Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, iletişim sürekliliği ve satış etkisi üretir. Firmanın bir çok kampanya faaliyetleri şekillendirip şirket imajında birleştirmek için sorumluluğu birisinin ellerine verilir. Şirketin ve ürünlerin, tüketicinin problemlerini çözmekte nasıl yardımcı olacağını göstermeyi amaçlayan bir toplam pazarlama iletişimi stratejisine yol açar. [4]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, satın alma davranışına direk etki etmek için müşteriye odaklanır. Bu yoğunlaşma sonucunda, reklamda farkındalık seviyesini artırarak, müşteride olumlu etki bırakmaya çalışır. Müşterilerin satın alma davranışlarınız izleyerek, bir sonraki satın alma davranışını tahminlemeye çalışır.

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi, çağdaş pazarlamanın yeni bir oluşumudur ve pazarlama hedeflerinin gerçekleştirilmesi için iletişim faaliyetlerini entegre edilmesidir. [5]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimi programı temelde Şekil 1.1 deki iletişim modeline dayanır.

Şekil 1.1

Bundaki “Sender” firmayı, “Receiver” ise tüketiciyi temsil etmektedir. Şekilde firma mesajı farklı araçlar yardımı ile tüketiciye ulaştırmaya çalışmaktadır ve gelen mesajın tüketici tarafından doğru anlaşıldığından emin olmak için bir geri bildirim söz konusudur. Doğru pazarlama iletişimi tüketicinin mesajı doğru şekilde algılamasıyla gerçekleşir. [6]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimini kısa vadeli geçici başarılar peşinde koşan, başlangıç ve bitişi olan bir süreç olarak görmek doğru olmaz. Entegre pazarlama iletişimi döngüsel bir süreçtir; bilgi analiz edilir, analiz edilen bilgi yeni programlarda kullanılır ve sürecin devamlılığı için tekrar tekrar incelenebilir. Bu yüzden entegre pazarlama iletişiminin ana hedefini mevcut ve potansiyel müşteriler için uzun süreli sadakate dayalı karlı ilişkiler oluşturmak olarak özetleyebiliriz.
Entegre pazarlama iletişimini iletişim çalışmalarını ve uygulamalarını kapsayan bir şemsiye olarak nitelendirebiliriz. Bu yaklaşıma göre her bir hedef kitleye bir iletişim stratejisi gereklidir. Bu strateji, iletişim türlerinde (reklam, halkla ilişkiler, satış tutundurma vb.) değişik iletişim araçlarının kullanılmasına temel oluşturmaktadır. Değişik iletişim türlerindeki entegre çalışmalar ile açık, tutarlı ve yüksek derece iletişim etkisi oluşturmak mümkün hale gelmektedir. [7]

Entegre pazarlama iletişimini bir sinerji olarak kabul edebiliriz. Biribirinden farklı parçaları bir arada koordineli bir şekilde birleştirerek bu sinerji yakalanabilir. Daha önce de bahsettiğimiz gibi parçalar arası tutarlılık çok önemlidir. Bu sinerjinin sağlanması basit gibi görünse de, oldukça zor bir süreçtir.

Ülkemizde Entegre pazarlama iletişimini doğru olarak uygulayan kuruluş sayısı oldukça az olması bunu başarmanın ne kadar zor olduğunu açıkça ortaya koymaktadır. İletişim kanallarını doğru kullanan kuruluşlara örnek olarak Koç Holding’i verebiliriz. Koç Holding marka imajını destekleyen iletişim araçlarını doğru bir şekilde entegrasyonunu sağlayabilen ender Türk firmalarından bir tanesidir.

Pazarlama İletişimine Kitle İletişim Araçlarının Etkisi

Geçmişte pazarlamacılar kitle iletişim araçları seçimi ve tüketiciler üzerindeki etkisi üzerinde çok fazla yoğunlaşmamıştı. [8]

Klasik kitle iletişim araçlarının yerini artık yavaş yavaş internet ve mobil telefonlar almaktadır. Klasik kitle iletişim araçları tek yönlü bir iletişim sağlarken, yeni nesil kitle iletişim araçları etkileşimli bir iletişimi olanaklı hale getirmiştir.

Geleneksel kitle iletişim araçları marka üretimi konusunda oldukça popülerdi çünkü tek seferde çok fazla kişiye etki edebiliyorlardı. Bu yüzden de ulaşılan kişi başına maliyet düşük olmaktaydı. Fakat bu iletişim araçları tek yönlü olduğu için, müşterinin mesajı gönderen ile direk bir iletişimi söz konusu olmuyordu.

Geleneksel kitle iletişim araçlarını genel olarak yazılı, yayın ve destekleyici kitle iletişim araçları olarak üç kategoride toplamak mümkün. Yazılı medyalara örnek olarak gazete ve dergiler, yayın yapan medyaya örnek olarak televizyon ve radyo, destekleyici medyaya örnek olarak da bu iki kategorinin dışında kalan promosyon ürünleri, eğlence program iletişimleri gibi araçları örnek olarak verebiliriz. [9]

1990’lı yıllarda internetin yaygınlaşmaya başlamasıyla birlikte pazarlama dünyasında büyük bir değişim başlattı. Bir çok reklam internet üzerinden kolay ve çok ucuz bir şekilde yayınlanabilir oldu. Ürün tanıtımlarında tüketicilere yardımcı olmak amacı ile bir çok web sitesi kuruldu. İnternet reklamlarının en önemli artısı çift yönlü olmasıydı. Örneğin bir ürünün reklamının bir internet sitesine koyulduğunda müşterilerden anket vb. yöntemler ile geri bildirim alabilmeleri sağlandı.İnternetin diğer bir avantajı da bir çok formatta bilgiyi mesaja ekleyebiliyor olmasıdır. Bir internet reklamında yazılar, resimler, sesler, hareketli animasyonlar gibi bir çok bilgi kullanılabilir. İnternetin dezavantajı ise insanları sürekli bilgisayarlarını yanlarında taşıyamadığı için her istedikleri zaman interneti kullanamamalarıydı.

Mobilite kavramı son yıllarda gittikçe önem kazanmaya başladı. Çünkü artık akıllı telefonların yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte internet kullanım yaygınlığı hat safhaya ulaştı. İnsanlar her istedikleri yerden bilgiye artık kolayca ulaşabiliyor. Bu devrim tabi ki pazarlama dünyasını da temelden etkilemekte, artık pazarlamacılar tüketiciler ile her an etkileşim halinde olabiliyorlar. Diğer bir avantajı ise televizyon gibi her kitleye ulaşma gibi bir çaba içerisine girmek yerine daha niş alanlara odaklanıp sadece hedef kitleye yoğunlaşılmasına olanak sağlıyor.

Artık her yaştan bir çok kişi interneti ve mobil cihazları etkin bir şekilde kullanıyor. İnternet üzerinden alışveriş, bankacılık işlemleri, haber takibi, facebook, twitter, linkedin, youtube, msn, skype gibi birçok işlem ve uygulama mobil cihazlar üzerinden kullanılabiliyor. Durum böyle olunca da mobil reklam vermek cazip hale gelmeye başladı. Mobil reklam vermeyi cazip kılan diğer bir konu ise coğrafi konumun tespit edilebilmesi ve dolayısı ile coğrafi konum bazlı reklam verilebilmesi pazarlamacılar için gerçekten önemli bir konu. Örneğin bir mağazanın önünden geçerken tüketiciye mağazanın bir kampanyası hakkında bir mesaj göndermek veya indirim kuponu göndermek tüketicilere satın alma kararı verdirme noktasında çok etkin bir yöntem olabilir. Elbette televizyon gibi geleneksel medya araçları varlığını uzunca bir süre devam ettirecek gibi görünüyor ancak yeni nesil iletişim araçlarının etkinliği her geçen gün arttığı da su götürmez bir gerçek. [10]

Entegre pazarlama İletişiminin geleceği ile ilgili yapılan araştırmalara göre ilerleyen zamanlarda varlığını sürdürmeye devam edecek ve daha yaygın hale gelecek. Fakat entegre pazarlama iletişimi bir görüş olmaktan çıkacak ve yönetilebilmesi için yeni ihtiyaçlar ortaya çıkacak. Önündeki bir diğer engel ise ölçme ve değerlendirmenin zor olmasıdır. Bu sebepten dolayı teknolojik yetenekler ve modeller entegre pazarlama iletişiminin gelişimi açısından önemli rol oynayacaktır. [11]


Günümüz pazarlama yaklaşımlarının bir sonucu olarak firmalar tüketicinin aklından ve kalbinden geçeni daha iyi anlamaya ve günlük hayatta oluşan değişimlerin toplumları ve tüketicileri nasıl etkilediğini kavramaya biraz daha bağımlı hale gelmektedir. Bu sebepten dolayı tüketiciye doğru mesajı iletebilmek çok önemlidir. Teknolojik gelişmeler ile birlikte kitle iletişim araçlarını doğru kullanabilmenin önemi her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bu yüzden firmalar rekabet avantajı sağlamak için entegre pazarlama iletişimi kavramı çok iyi algılamalı ve uygulamalıdır. Bütün noktalarda firmanın misyon ve vizyonuna uygun, tutarlı mesajlar üretilmelidir.


1. Philip Kotler ve Gary Armstrong (2010). Principles of marketing – 14.baskı. sayfa:4

2. Philip J. Kitchen ve Inga Burgman (2010). Integrated Marketing Communication –

3. İ.Ü. İletişim Fakültesi, Gazetecilik Bölümü

4. Philip Kotler,Gary Armstrong, Marketing An Introduction, Prentice Hall 1996 s.450

5. A.Bülent Göksel, Füsun Kocabaş, Müge Erden, Pazarlama İletişimi Açısından Halkla İlişkiler ve Reklam, İstanbul: Yayınevi Yayıncılık, 1997, s.126

6. Kenneth Clow, Integrated Advertising, Promotion & Marketing Communication, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002): s.7.

7.Yavuz Odabaşı, Pazarlama İletişimi, Eskişehir Anadolu Üniversitesi Basımevi, 2.Baskı, 1998, s.183.

8. Jennings Bryant ve Dolf Zillmann, Media Effects Advance in Theory and Research 2008, bölüm 14, s.353
9. Journal of Business & Economics Research; Aralık 2009; 7, 12; ABI/INFORM Complete s.31

10. http://www.reklam.com.tr

11. Lynne Eagle, Philip J. Kitchen, Sandy Bulmer, European Journal of Marketing Vol. 41 No. 7/8, 2007 s.967.

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